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Project description
Can you please start writing with these on the top by double spacing?

AIH2102 Varieties of History: The Crusades

Tutor: Dr. Katherine Lewis

Name: Tamas Zelei
Essay Title: Why did Islamic forces win the second crusade?

Can you please use primary sources (3) and secondary sources which are books (6 of them)

Here’s my booklist which should include in my assignment:
General reading

Books recommended for purchase
Christopher Tyerman, God’s War: A New History of the Crusades (2007 for the paperback edition) a detailed account of events, invaluable background information and interpretive issues for both seminars and written work

Jonathan Phillips, Holy Warriors: A Modern History of the Crusades (2010 for the paperback edition) a briefer account and a more approachable introduction than Tyerman. It places more of an emphasis on thematic and conceptual issues, and includes some insightful discussion of post-medieval perceptions and appropriations of the Crusades

A 3 part BBC TV series on the Crusades presented by leading crusades historian Thomas Asbridge is available on Unitube and is well worth watching. See Unilearn for direct links to the episodes in the External Links folder.

Christopher Tyerman, The Debate on the Crusades (2011) is an excellent guide to later medieval and post-medieval discussions of the crusades, including an account of modern historiographical developments which will be very useful for essays.

Generally useful ebooks (these are also available in hard copies in the library) Ebooks are highlighted in bold throughout this handbook.

Christopher Tyerman, The Crusades: A Very Short Introduction (2005) (a very nice introduction to the topic, as the title suggests!) This was originally published as Fighting for Christendom: Holy War and the Crusades (2004) which we also have via Summon.

The following 2 books will have some relevant material for all the topics that we’ll cover and are excellent starting points for events, biographies of individuals, authors, etc.

Peter Lock, The Routledge Companion to the Crusades (2006) (contains a very useful narrative outline of events, biographies of key figures and thematic discussion)

Alan V. Murray, The Crusades: An Encyclopedia 3 volumes (2006) (as its title suggests, alphabetical entries covering a huge range of topics, events and individuals – browse the list of entries at the beginning of the book for seminar preparation and essays).

Other books on the Crusades
Here follows a list of other general books on the Crusades which can be found in the library. These will generally not be listed in each week’s reading, but do have useful surveys of events and issues. Note that the approaches and findings of the older studies here have been modified and often challenged by more recent scholarship. This doesn’t mean that they aren’t worth reading but you do need to be aware of how scholarship has moved on since they were written. Especially as there has been a lot of new work produced in the last decade in particular.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades in three volumes
Vol I: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1951)
Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East (1952
Vol III: Acre and the Later Crusades (1954)
Runciman produced the first survey of the Crusades in English and this is now considered a classic account. His work has been extremely influential – note that these books have been republished many times since the 1950s, so we have copies of volume 1 in the library published at different dates, but the text is the same so it doesn’t matter which one you use!

Kenneth M. Setton, A History of the Crusades in 6 volumes (1969) – vols 1&2 are in the library, all 6 volumes can be accessed online, see the link on Unilearn.

R.C. Smail, Crusading Warfare 1097-1193 (1956)
Thomas Sherrer Ross, Kingdoms and Strongholds of the Crusaders (1971)
Hans Eberhard Mayer, The Crusades (1972; second edition 1988)
R.C. Smail, The Crusaders in Syria and the Holy Land (1973)
H.E.J. Cowdrey, Popes, Monks and Crusaders (1984)
Jean Richard, The Crusades c. 1071- c. 1291 (1999)
Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perceptions (1999)
Adrian J. Boas, Crusader Archaeology: The Material Culture of the Near East (1999) (ebook)
Mike Paine, The Crusades (2001) (ebook. This is a brief introduction to events and issues)
Amin Maalouf, The Crusades Through Arab Eyes (2001)
Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed. The Oxford History of the Crusades (2002) (ebook, a collection of essays by a range of historians, also available in illustrated form as
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades)
This has exactly the same contents, but with illustrations (both contemporary images and photographs of crusader sites)
Jonathan P. Phillips, The Crusades 1095-1197 (2002)
Marcus Bull and Norman Housley, eds, The Experience of Crusading. Volume I: Western Approaches (2003)
P.W. Edbury and Jonathan Phillips, eds, The Experience of Crusading. Volume II: Defining the Crusader Kingdom (2003) two very useful collections of essays, again, worth browsing as not all of the contents are listed in this pack
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (2003) (ebook)
Helen J. Nicholson, Medieval Warfare Theory and the Practice of Warfare in Europe, 300-1500 (2004) (ebook, a very useful discussion of the Crusades within the wider medieval context)
Helen J. Nicholson, ed., Palgrave Advances in the Crusades (2005) (ebook, rather than a survey of events, this is a thematic study of differing approaches which historians have taken to the crusades and provides some invaluable historiographical discussion).
Jonathan Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (2006)

About the style:

History at Huddersfield: Style Sheet

You should always employ the Oxford System for all forms of History coursework: references are indicated by a number in the text (placed after punctuation, as at the end of this sentence) and a correspondingly numbered footnote at the foot of the page or endnote at the end of the essay.1 To place a footnote number like this2, for example, is incorrect. Use your word-processing programme for referencing. If you need help, ask.
References should be used for:
direct quotations. Short quotations (one or two sentences) are incorporated into the text of the essay but indicated by single quotation marks. Longer quotations are set off in single spacing indented from the left-hand margin.
Mention of a particular theory, fact, argument of viewpoint (attributable to a specific person, that is not common knowledge)
Statistics, examples and case studies
Paraphrase of any of the above.

For full details about referencing see ‘History at Huddersfield Style Guide for Referencing’ available on Unilearn
This is how your references should appear in your footnotes.
1 Christopher Hill, The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (London, 1975), p. 163.
2 Roger Howard, ‘Britain, Persia and petroleum’, History Today, 58, 5, (2008), pp. 44-53.
3 Alcuin Blamires, ‘The twin demons of aristocratic society in Sir Gowther’ in N. McDonald (ed.), Pulp Fictions of Medieval England: Essays in Popular Romance (Manchester, 2004), pp. 54-55.
4 David Cody, ‘Child Labor’, The Victorian Web, <http://landow.stg.brown.edu/victorian/history/hist8.html>, [Accessed 12 May 2008].
5 Lawrence of Arabia (1962). [Film]

Subsequent references to a text are given via a short title as follows.
6 Hill, The World Turned Upside Down, p. 168.
7 Howard, ‘Britain, Persia and Petroleum’, pp. 45-6.
8 Blamires, ‘The twin demons of aristocratic society’, p. 55.
9 Cody, ‘Child Labor’.
10 Lawrence of Arabia.

Avoid Latin abbreviations (op. cit., et al). The one exception is ibid. = ibidem, which you may use if you are confident that you can use it correctly – see the full style guide on Unilearn.

This is how references should appear in your bibliography.
List primary and secondary sources separately.
In secondary


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